A natural question to ask is “What’s that?”, and it’s a very good question.
Before answering that, though, I think there are questions we should ask before, such as:
- “What do we mean by ‘integrated’, ‘personal’ and ‘commissioning’?”
- “What difference do each make?”
This is the second of three posts looking at each topic individually (see the introduction to this short series). It’s a very quick way into the issue of what we might mean by ‘personal’, sharing information that I’ve found useful in my own learning. It’s not intended in any way to be comprehensive! Thus, if there are things you think should be added feel free to do so in the comments or on Twitter. I’ll update the posts accordingly.
What do we mean by ‘personal’?
The last 15 years have seen a shift towards more responsive, personal public services. Adult social care has been at the forefront of this shift, with policy areas such as health acknowledging and adopting the difference that social care has seen as a result.
I’d suggest a ‘personal’ approach to health and social care broadly encompasses two interconnected, perhaps even indistinguishable areas: personalisation and person-centred approaches.
The landmark policy statement for personalisation was the Putting People First Concordat of 2007 (pdf). In this we see the key principles of a personalised approach: “Replacing paternalistic, reactive care of variable quality with [a] focus on prevention, early intervention, and high quality personally tailored services… [where] people have maximum choice, control and power… People who use social care services and their families will increasingly shape and commission their own services” (p.2). The Care Act (2014) has since embedded many of these principles in legislation (see also the “policy and legislation” box here (pdf) (p.4)).
The second chapter of the Five Year Forward View is explicit about preventative, person-centred, empowering approaches in health. This itself builds on Domain 2 of the NHS Outcomes Framework which focuses on enhancing the quality of life for people with long-term health conditions through personalised care and support planning. Bothe the 5YFV and Domain 2 of the NHS Outcomes Framework are why we see such a focus on person-centred approaches in the Vanguards/New Models of Care support offer, whose Chapter 4 shares what that key programme will do to empower people and communities through, for example, person-centred care and support, and services created in partnership with people and communities (pp.18-19) (pdf).
Because personalisation and person-centred approaches have been around and developed over the last 15 years in particular there is no shortage of information about them. There are, I think, four sources that provide the best introduction to personalisation and person-centred approaches:
- Getting Serious About Personalisation in the NHS (pdf) – written for those who are working in health and care organisations that will need to change systems and practices to deliver personalised, integrated care and support
- Think Local Act Personal’s personalised care and support planning tool – This includes a section that usefully defines what personalised care and support planning is, its origins, its values and principles, related behaviours and beliefs of professionals and what personalised care and support planning looks like in health and care settings
- The Collaboration for Coordinated Care (C4CC) provides useful links to some of the best person-centred resources around
- The Health Foundation has a subsite focused on person-centred care, with a wide range of resources exploring this vast topic. This incorporates the link to key areas of person-centred approaches such as shared decision making and self-management
What difference does ‘personal’ make?
Like integration there is no shortage of evidence regarding personalisation and person-centred approaches. Here’s the evidence that I’ve personally found most useful.
- The Individual Budgets evaluation – the first significant, robust study on the difference that personalisation makes – especially through the mechanism of Direct Payments / Personal Budgets (SPRU, 2008)
- A partnership of In Control and Lancaster University has published three Personalisation Outcomes Evaluation Tool (POET) survey findings. These surveys explore the difference Personal Budgets have made to people with them and their carers, as well as their experience of the process. Findings are available for 2011 (pdf), 2013 (pdf) and 2014 (pdf)
- HSCIC’s annual adult social care survey includes comparisons of the experiences of people on Direct Payments or Personal Budgets compared to other forms of social care support. The latest data available is for 2013/14 (pdf) (and see, for example, Figure 2.8 on page 53 – reproduced below)
- The Social Care Elf and Mental Elf have usefully summarised some key studies on the effects of personalisation and Personal Budgets for key user groups: for older people, for people with mental health problems, and for carers
- A significant formal evaluation of Personal Health Budgets (pdf) was published by PSSRU in 2012
- Building on their surveys for adult social care, In Control and Lancaster University have also produced three POET surveys capturing the difference Personal Health Budget have made to their holders and their carers, as well as their experience of the process: 2013 (pdf), 2014 (pdf), 2015 (pdf)
There is equally significant evidence on the topic of self-management and shared decision making (often called “patient activiation”). National Voices has produced a summary of systematic reviews on the topics of self-management (pdf) and shared decision-making (pdf). Similarly, the Health Foundation has pulled out its take on the best reviews of existing evidence. Finally, NIHR has a synthesis on the evidence available on interventions that support self-management of long-term conditions.